You can help by adding to it. February Home environment[ edit ] The environment of low SES children is characterized by less dialogue from parents, minimal amounts of book reading, and few instances of joint attentionthe shared focus of the child and adult on the same object or event, when compared to the environment of high SES children. In contrast, infants from high SES families experience more child-directed speech.
In general, persons of higher socioeconomic status are less exposed to health-threatening conditions and have more resources to buffer health threats. For instance, persons with more education have greater ability to self-monitor and manage highly effective but complicated therapies for such conditions as diabetes and HIV Goldman and Smith, Variation in this ability may Socio economic status is the most other factors in addition to education, however.
In general, the intervening mechanisms that have been studied through which socioeconomic status affects health—such as behavior risk factors Lantz et al. In addition, these intervening mechanisms could operate independently of socioeconomic status.
Additional factors may also obscure the effects of status. For instance, recent immigrants often have lower incomes, at least initially, but enjoy health advantages for other reasons.
Working-age immigrants, particularly those with employment visas or who enter as spouses of U. Assessing the role of socioeconomic factors in group health, therefore, requires attention to health in countries of origin and to the average healthiness of the original immigrants, the diversity in health status among them, and their subsequent health trajectories over their lifetimes and those of their descendants.
In addition to these individual-level mechanisms, considerable research in the last decade argues that macrolevel socioeconomic factors affect individual health outcomes Marmot, ; Wilkinson, One form of the hypothesis is that inequality, as measured in various ways, has a negative effect on individual health outcomes, especially for those at the bottom of the social and economic hierarchy.
In this view, the cumulative stress of being at the bottom of the hierarchy eventually takes a toll in poorer health. This is an important scientific hypothesis with far-reaching implications.
However, much of the influential early work on this subject suffered from severe limitations, including inadequate conceptualization of and difficulties in separating individual from macrolevel influences.
Recent work by Deaton and Paxson argues that, at least for U. Page 59 Share Cite Suggested Citation: The National Academies Press.
For both adults and children, increased respiratory and other health problems result from residing near hazardous waste sites Dolk et al.
However, the exact contribution of such environmental conditions to racial and ethnic differences in health status, and the extent to which they add to other socioeconomic effects or possibly explain them, is still unclear.
Clarify the degree to which socioeconomic status accounts for racial and ethnic differences in health outcomes over the life course. Some differences are not explained by socioeconomic status, or even run counter to the expected.
Would better measures of education, or other aspects of status, provide clarification? Would incorporating measures of earlier socioeconomic status, perhaps status prior to immigration, explain more of the differences? Is better modeling needed of presumed nonlinear relationships?
What differences in health outcomes would still not be explained even if all these questions could be answered? The possibility that the effects of socioeconomic factors are misestimated because of differential survival by race and ethnic group also requires consideration.
One complication is that dimensions of socioeconomic status are not identical in their effects on racial and ethnic health differences. Analysts need to know the most appropriate aspect of status to consider—income, wealth, education, or occupation. Health differences by race or ethnicity will look different if one or the other indicator is controlled.
Policy makers need to know which aspect of status matters most. It makes a great deal of difference to policy whether differences are largely due to income, in which case increasing the income of the poor gains greater weight from its possible Page 60 Share Cite Suggested Citation: That identical levels on the same indicators may have different implications across groups also requires attention.
Variability in the effect of socioeconomic status over the life course is an additional complication.The potential power of the socioeconomic status (SES) paradigm in understanding health disparities—including racial/ethnic disparities—is evident in the fact that socioeconomic differences in health outcomes have been widely documented for most health conditions in most countries.
Socioeconomic status (SES) is usually measured by determining education, income, occupation, or a composite of these dimensions. Although education is the most commonly used measure of SES in epidemiological studies, no investigators in the United States have conducted an empirical analysis quantifying the relative impact of each .
Socioeconomic status is obviously related to race and ethnicity in the United States, but the role of socioeconomic factors as a cause of racial/ ethnic health differences is complex. Many studies have documented the importance of blacks' low SES as a partial explanation for poor health outcomes relative to .
‘Socio economic status is the most important factor leading to inequalities in health’ Discuss. There are many reasons for health inequalities in Britain today. Undoubtedly, ne of the most important is Socio economic status, as a stand alone factor and because it interlinks with other major factors.
Home Drug Addiction Economic Status and Abuse Economic status refers to the bracket or class a person or household falls into based on their income production level.
In , around ,, households had income during the year, and percent of them brought in more than $, . A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the .